Image. 2016. . [ONLINE] Available at: http://diabetesnsw.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/pat-type2.jpg. [Accessed 09 April 2016].


I have had diabetes since the late 1990s partly inherited from my parents and as they like to say, due to lifestyle choices, which I don’t agree with. No one sets out to develop diabetes.

I have type 2 insulin dependent diabetes and I also have water diabetes or diabetes insipitus; over the years it progressed from tablet and diet controlled to insulin in 2003.Now I am using an additional type of diabetic injection to assist weight loss – Byetta, it has both good and bad reviews but thus far appears to be doing as it is intended as I have experienced a slight weight loss in the month I have been using it.


Definitions of Diabetes on the Web: care of Google

  • What is gestational diabetes? Category: Mom’s health A chronic health condition where the body is unable to produce insulin and properly break down sugar (glucose) in the blood. Symptoms include hunger, thirst, excessive urination, dehydration and weight loss. The treatment of diabetes requires daily insulin injections, proper nutrition and regular exercise.
  • diabetes  (dye-a-BEE-teez)A disease in which the body does not properly control the amount of sugar in the blood. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood is too high. This disease occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it properly. A group of disorders in which there is a defect in the transfer of glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into cells, leading to abnormally high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia).
  • diabetes mellitus  (MEL-ih-tus)
  • A condition caused when the body is unable to use insulin to process the glucose (sugar) in the blood properly and so the level of glucose in the blood is too high for good health
  • a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that is necessary to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy.
    insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
  • A lifelong disease marked by elevated levels of sugar in the blood. It can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. a
  • A disease in which the body’s production and use of insulin is impaired, causing sugar to build up in the bloodstream. There are many types of diabetes, but the most common are type 1, type 2 and gestational. Also called diabetes mellitus (MEL-lih-tuhs).
  • a disease in which patients have high levels of sugar in their blood
  • A disease in which blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are above normal. Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is the most common form of diabetes.
  • an abnormal state of health marked by insulin is deficient and the urine and blood contain excess sugar
  • A disease in which the body cannot convert food into energy because of a lack of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas), or because of an inability to use insulin. Diabetes is a serious condition that can cause complications ranging from numbness to loss of vision to coma. It also significantly raises the risk for other problems, such as stroke and heart disease. About 17 million Americans have diabetes.
  • A disease associated with the absence or reduced levels of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that is essential for the transport of glucose to cells.
  • A disease that affects the metabolism of glucose (sugar), thus causing changes in blood vessels. These changes may aid in the development of coronary artery disease.
  • a disease which causes a high glucose level and can cause kidney failure – this develops in about 20% of all patients with diabetes.
  • A hereditary or developmental problem with sugar metabolism. Caused by a failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Juvenile diabetes, or type 1 diabetes, is treated with diet, exercise and insulin. Type 2, formerly called adult onset, is now seen in overweight children. It is treated with diet, exercise and medication. In severe cases, type 2 diabetes is also treated with insulin.
  • A disease in which sugar and starch are not properly used by our bodies due to inadequate insulin production (type 1) or decreased sensitivity to insulin (type 2).
  • An abnormality of insulin production that results in elevated blood sugar. The elevated blood sugar can cause damage to many organs of the body, including the retina.
  • medical illness caused by too little insulin (insulin normally lowers blood sugar) or poor response to insulin. As a result, blood sugars are not well controlled and are higher than normal. It can affect many parts of the body causing disease of small arteries, disease of peripheral nerves, and can affect white blood cells ability to fight infection.
  • A condition that means your body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood effectively. People with diabetes are very susceptible to kidney failure because diabetes affects the blood supply to the kidneys. There are two types of diabetes. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetics tend to develop the disease early in life and are unable to control blood sugar levels because their bodies cannot make a special hormone called insulin. …
  • mellitus. A common form of diabetes in which the body cannot properly store or use glucose (sugar), the body’s main source of energy.
  • (dy-uh-BEE-teez): diabetes mellitus; a metabolic disease in which deficient insulin leads to decreased carbohydrate utilization and enhanced utilization of lipids and proteins
  • a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as insulin-dependent (type I) and non-insulin dependent (type II). Type I diabetes results from a lack of adequate insulin secretion by the pancreas. Type II diabetes (also known as adult-onset diabetes) is characterized by an insensitivity of the tissues of the body to insulin secreted by the pancreas (insulin resistance).
  • A chronic health condition in which the body is unable to break down sugar and starches for energy. Complications can include heart disease, stroke, neuropathy, poor circulation leading to loss of limbs, hearing impairment, vision problems, and death. Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, in which the body does not produce enough insulin, usually appears in children and young adults. …
  • The inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin. The body needs insulin to convert sugar and starch into the energy needed in daily life. The full name for this condition is diabetes mellitus; defined as a fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dL or more measured on two occasions.
  • Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycaemia (elevated blood sugar levels), especially after eating. All types of diabetes mellitus share similar symptoms and complications at advanced stages. Hyperglycaemia itself can lead to dehydration and ketoacidosis. …
    Wikapedia – diabetes


I realise that is seems that Br Andrew Efodoes all the writing for this web – true yet Jessica has firstly set the work down. Jessica also produces and updates her Medical Protocols for the benefit of her Respite Organisations and carers. The following table is an example of one.

Jessica’s Blood glucose levels protocols

Hypoglycaemia is a low Blood Glucose Level of less than 4.0, at any time.

You must start treatment immediately or without immediate treatment, Jessica can go into a coma or die.


Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia:

May be mistaken for a Epileptic Seizure

  • Is Jessica behaving strangely or does she appear drunk?
  • Jessica may have a loss of awareness
  • Jessica may have a change in awareness, behaviour.
  • Jessica may also show abnormal activity or behaviour.
  • Jessica’s blood sugar might be low (less than 4.0).
  • Answers, I’m ok, to all questions.
  • Pulls at her hair.
  • Pulls at her cloths.
  • Also giggles, when she is hurt or in pain.
  • Giggles, even In a Seizure.

If Jessica is conscious, & able to respond. Go to Step 1

Jessica is unconscious, or is unable to co-operate or respond go straight to step 4

Step 1. Give Jessica something sweet to eat e.g. 6 Jellybeans, Sugared Ginger, Dried Fruit, 2 teaspoons/cubes of sugar or a sweetened drink.

Step 2. Re-test in 15 minutes,

If the B.G.L. is less than 4.5,     repeat steps 1 and 2,    If the B.G.L. is over 4.5,                        go to step 3.

Step 3. Eating a Muffin, a Sandwich or biscuits should keep the improvements continuing.

Blood glucose levels must return to between 4.5 & 8.0 Within 10 -15 minutes after Treatment.


If Jessica does not recover within 15 minutes, go straight to step 4


Jessica is unconscious,                                                             Jessica Is Unable to co-operate,

Jessica Will not, co-operate,                                                      Jessica Will not, respond,

Go straight to step 4

Step. 4

Call an ambulance immediately by dialling 000 And Saying, “This is, a Diabetic Emergency

What to do and say, when you call an ambulance

  1. Dial 000 (Police Fire or ambulance) when answered ask for ambulance
  2. when the ambulance operator answers,  Say, “This is, a Diabetic Emergency”
  3. Say the address where you are, any Land marks, and nearest cross Streets

(With Poor Mobile, reception areas only try dialling 112)

Jessica must, follow the advice of the ambulance officers at all times!

Signed A J Blair. 


Disclaimer:This is the type of information we recomend carers of people with diabetes and epilepsy be given especially when that person is not quite able to speak for themselves. Carrying out the instructions will dependupon the Carer being either the spouse/partner or a Registered Nurse.

Do not take this information as being medically correct it is Jessica’s protocol.


Links Diabetes NSW

Accu- chek Blood Glucose monitors

Freestyle Optium Blood Glucose Monitoring System




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